In personam

In personam is Latin for ‘towards a person’. In law, it refers to a right or an action against a single or specific person only, and may also be referred to as personal jurisdiction. This is in contrast to a right or action in rem (against the world). An in personam judgment binds only the litigants in the matter.

All legal rights can be classified as either in personam or in rem.

Examples of in personam legal rights include contractual rights, a tortious award claim, or a licence.